2013. 114 pp. In: Mastro, V.C., R. Reardon and G. Parra (Eds.). Beltsville, MD. Blaney, concerning the distribution, abundance and status of Black Ash in Ontario and Quebec. Since 1965, Nova Scotia’s permanent sample plots have been revisited on a five year rotation, allowing tracking of individual trees and some indication of population trends. 1999 to 2017; AC CDC 2017). Black Ash seeds retain viability in the soil from three to eight years. The following characters collectively distinguish Black Ash from other Canadian ash species: Three photos showing, respectively, (top) the leaves, (bottom left) the samaras, and (bottom right) the twigs of the Black Ash. Observations of high quality eastern deciduous riparian sites in southeast Manitoba's Whitemouth River Watershed. Web site: COSEWIC. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2699.2003.00842.x. Estimating potential emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) populations using ash inventory data. Manage. The 151,434 m3 estimated total volume (roughly 285,000 trees, vastly greater than would be present today) would thus represent 29.31 m3 of observed volume, or about 55 mature trees (0.13 m average diameter x 10 m log length). Marie ON. Black Ash (Figures 1 and 2) is a broadleaved hardwood tree reaching a height of 15 m to 27 m (Grimm 1962; Farrar 1995; GoBotany 2017; maximum 37 m, from Clayton, Iowa - American Forests 2012). Black Ash thus could be considered relatively opportunistic and resilient to disturbance (Gucker 2005). 1975. 2012. Dayton, P.K. 2018. Many hundreds or thousands of smaller unregistered dams are also present within Black Ash range. The species’ present natural distribution limits are believed to be mainly determined by climate, with a northern extent likely limited by lack of degree days (with late flowering resulting in incomplete fruit maturation) and a southern limit likely determined by a lack of chilling that prevents dormancy break (Morin et al. Black Ash is ranked Apparently Secure (S4) in Iowa, New Jersey and Ontario (revised from S5 to S4S5 in 2013 and then to S4 in 2016 because of EAB), Apparently Secure to Secure (S4S5) in New Brunswick, Questionably Secure (S5?) Journal of Ethnobiology. Blaney, concerning distribution, abundance and standing timber volume of Black Ash in Ontario. US Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. Brownell, V.R. Venette, and E. Abdela. [accessed January 2017], NBDERD (New Brunswick Department of Energy and Resource Development). Resurrected from the ashes: a historical reconstruction of emerald ash borer dynamics through dendrochronological analyses. Given the believed link to erratic freeze-thaw cycles and decreased snow cover, its significance could increase under continued climate change (Allen and Breshears 2007), especially in the northern part of Black Ash range. Laboratory studies of tethered EAB suggest that mated female beetles can travel 20 km over four days (median distance >3 km, with 20% flying >10 km and 1% flying >20 km; Taylor et al. arundinaca) (Palik et al. The pathogenesis described here applies mainly to observed effects on White Ash. de Vos, A. 1987), where the flood tolerance of Black Ash offers a competitive advantage over more common species that are faster growing or more tolerant of nutrient-limitation, fire or other stresses (Erdman et al. Controlling desert ash (Fraxinus angustifolia subsp. 2012). Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire; syn: A. marcopoli Obenberger, A. marcopoli ulmi Kurosawa, A. ferestrius Obenberger), henceforth referred to as EAB, is an Asian wood-boring beetle in the family Buprestidae. DOI 10.1007/s10980-005-2378-9. Forestry practices during the last 100 years have provided an abundance of prime, early successional Moose habitat (NLDEC 2015) in Newfoundland. Black Ash is not closely related to any other North American native ashes (Wallander 2008, 2013), and is placed in section Fraxinus with European Ash (Fraxinus excelsior) and Narrow-leaved Ash (Fraxinus angustifolia) of Europe and Manchurian Ash (Fraxinus mandshurica) of eastern Asia (Wallander 2013). Fraxinoides nigra (Marshall) Medik. 798 pp. Black Ash is known to provide important substrate for Flooded Jellyskin Lichen (Leptogium rivulare), a small boreal-temperate foliose cyanolichen only known in North America from a limited number of sites in Manitoba, Ontario and southern Quebec (COSEWIC 2015b). Taylor, R.A.J., T.M. Black Ash occurrence data. Benedict, M.A. The fact that trees >25 cm diameter at breast height were recorded in 1958 is also telling, given that only four recent Nova Scotian occurrences out of 197 in which size was recorded have trees exceeding ≥20 cm diameter at breast height (AC CDC 2017) and no trees of that size have been recorded in permanent sample plots since 1981 (NS DNR 2017; see below). Kirchner, and N.C. Melvin. Sprouting and seed production may promote persistence of green ash in the presence of the emerald ash borer. 2017. [accessed January 2017]. 1987). The entire Province/State is coloured, regardless of where in that Province/State it occurs. [accessed January 2017]. 2015. (2018) summarized the strong positive trends in EAB biocontrol on Green Ash and White Ash yet indicated that more time is needed to determine the effect of EAB biocontrol on ash health and regeneration. Hunting and collecting terrestrial animals. 2016. This species was approved for release in Canada in 2017 (Duan et al. Management for general conservation purposes provides minimal protection against the impacts of Emerald Ash Borer, as the intensive effort required to inoculate individual trees against the beetle is impractical for large scale application (Herms et al. In northern Quebec, Tardif and Bergeron (1992, 1999) determined that saplings generated from seed are more common and faster growing than vegetative sprouts on well-drained sites, while the reverse occurs on sites exposed to flooding. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the Black Ash Fraxinus nigra in Canada. COSEWIC (Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada). Tardif, J., and Y. Bergeron. 2005; Siegert et al. 1987; Tardif and Bergeron 1992, 1999; Denneler et al. Some minor cattle grazing in riparian areas that harbour Black Ash, trivial at a national scale. Since beginning with the AC CDC in 1999, he has discovered dozens of new provincial records for vascular plants and documented over 15,000 rare plant occurrences during extensive fieldwork across the Maritimes. 2013. 1987; USDA NRCS 2006), especially following fire, browsing or cutting (Gucker 2005). Lichvar, R.W., D.L. Wickware. Hendrickson, J.A. Black Ash stand composition and structure in Carlton County, Minnesota. Tremblay, J.-P. pers. 1987). Sinclair, W.A., H.M. Griffiths, and I.M. Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station (PDF), Department of Plant Pathology and Ecology. It is not especially fire tolerant but does sprout vigorously from base, and also good dispersal from adjacent areas post-fire. 1976. ehsa (Mohawk) (Willow 2011), Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team, Morgantown WV. Resource Management Officer, Parks Canada, Western Newfoundland & Labrador Field Unit, Rocky Harbour NL. Harris, A., pers. obs. Adirondack upland flora: an ecological perspective. There is no evidence of specific future dams that may cause effects. McAlister, and M.W. 13 pp. Great Lakes Entomologist. This aphid-like true bug (Psyllidae, Homoptera) was first found in Canada in Nova Scotia in 1921, which was the second North American record after one in Rhode Island around 1907 (Hodkinson 1988; Culliney and Koop 2005). A reexamination of moose damage to balsam fir–white birch forests in central Newfoundland: 27 years later. City of Saskatoon, Parks Branch. IPNI (International Plant Names Index). Faced with limited natural predation, Moose colonized the entire island by the late 1940s (Pimlott 1959; Caines and Deichmann 1989) and are now likely significantly affecting Black Ash population and recruitment. MCPEI, Charlottetown, PE. Environmental Entomology. Email correspondence with D.M. The Indigenous peoples of central and eastern North America had many historical medicinal uses for Black Ash (Hoffman 1891; Smith 1923, 1928, 1932; Gilmore 1933; Speck and Dexter 1951, 1952; Hamel and Chiltoskey 1975; Herrick 1977). (2008) found that seed viability was relatively low (28%) in Nova Scotian seeds, which may be a consequence of generally poor tree health observed in the province (Blaney and Mazerolle pers. (Agriculture) (Nova Scotia Agricultural College, Truro, N.S. USDA Forest Service. Not applicable, Cottages were considered under housing. 2000. Mycopathologia. By 2010 several hundred thousand ash trees had been killed in Essex County, Ontario alone (OMNR 2010), which at less than 2% of the area of southern Ontario and only ~8% forest cover (the lowest of any county in Ontario, City of Windsor 2017), represented only a tiny fraction of ash trees in the currently affected zone. Elevation tolerance is not widely reported for Black Ash, but occurrence from sea level is known in the northern parts of Black Ash range, and it is restricted to elevations above 610 m at the southern range edge (Wright and Rauscher 1990; AC CDC 2017). In Nova Scotia, the species’ range appears to have declined since 1958 (see Threats – Unidentified Disease or Insect) and it is not known from much of the southern and eastern regions where strongly acidic soils predominate. is within zones in which EAB-experienced minimum temperatures average warmer than the most widely cited minimum survivable temperature of -30°C; Table 2); even if the minimum EAB-experienced survivable temperature was only -26°C, that would still leave 50.39% of the Canadian population of Black Ash potentially susceptible to EAB (Table 2). In Ontario, Quebec and New Brunswick, which contain the species’ core Canadian range, collective annual forest area harvested has averaged 334,000 ha in recent years (Natural Resources Canada 2013, 2014, 2015), which represents roughly 0.36% of Black Ash’s extent of occurrence, equating to 21.6% over 60 years (one generation); calculations beyond 60 years are complicated by second harvests of the same areas. Science of the Total Environment. Gould, and R.G. Species at Risk Act Recovery Strategy Series. 2007. FHTET-2010-01. Erdmann et al. 2016. 70:2294-2302. Pokorny, J.D., and W.A. Mireille Marcotte, National Manager, Plant Health Surveillance Unit, Plant Health Science Services Division, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Ottawa ON. Black Ash is reported to be highly susceptible to this virulent ash disease (Pautasso et al. 38(5):1083-1094. The largest individuals are known from the southern parts of the range (Iowa and Ohio, see Morphological Description) with the longest growing season. Hansen, H.L., L.W. Ecologist, Northwest Science and Information, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry, Thunder Bay ON. Director of Forestry, Unama’ki Institute of Natural Resources, Eskasoni, NS. 2013). Many possible interacting effects could, however, alter outcomes associated with a warmer climate. obs. 1999 to 2017; Smith et al. Stoney Point First Nation. Lenhart, K.N. 2005. comm. Email correspondence with C.S. Emerald Ash Borer is known from eight of these sites: Bruce Peninsula, Georgian Bay Islands, Niagara National Historic Sites, Point Pelee, Rideau Canal National Historic Site, Rouge National Urban Park, Thousand Islands, and Trent-Severn Waterway National Historic Site (Nantel pers. 2014; Telander et al. Wright, J.W. Given its known severity and prevalence throughout insular Newfoundland, over-browsing has almost certainly affected Black Ash to some degree and presently represents the most immediate threat to the provincial subpopulation. OMNR (Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources). Butry, Y.L. September 26 to 27, 2005. p. 9. J. Econ. pp. Woods, S.L. Smart, and R.E. McCullough. Areas with Black Ash that might be affected by renewable energy development are trivial in relation to the national range. pp. 1987; Lees and West 1988; Wright and Rauscher 1990; Wright and Rauscher 1990). Indigenous communities in Manitoba have seen large scale flooding because of human-made decisions on water levels being kept high for hydroelectric power generation. 44 pp. Black Ash reaches its northern limit in western Ontario near 53ºN, and its southern limit near 36.6ºN in southwestern Virginia (about 1700 km north to south), and it occurs between 56ºW in Newfoundland and 100ºW in North Dakota (about 3000 km east to west). Potential Effects of Foundation Species Loss on Wetland Communities: A Case Study of Black Ash Wetlands Threatened by Emerald Ash Borer. Many times, nearly all the trees on such sites are black ash, and there are few, if any, alternative species to plant. Herms, D.A., W. Klooster, K.S. 100(5):1577-1586. The nomenclatural convention is to use the “generic” name Phytoplasma preceded by 'Candidatus' (meaning candidate) and to separate into putative species any phytoplasmas with nucleotide sequence similarities less than or equal to 97.5% of known “species” (Phytoplasma Resource Centre 2017). The Black Ash Sportsman, Inc., by its Articles of Incorporation and By-Laws, is an organization created by sportsmen and sportswomen to promote hunting, fishing, competitive target shooting, outdoor recreation and to provide for the protection of our natural resources. Newsletter of the Michigan Entemological Society. All forestry impacts are dealt with under 5.3 Logging and wood harvesting. In a fashionable and stylish black ash colour, the Montreal laminate will have the appealing and consistent array of natural colours. 380 pp. 38-58. 2010. 2015) and in saplings (Duan et al. Bressette et al. Rousseau, J. 2017. Across 21 Black Ash stands in northern Minnesota, frequency of declining individuals ranged from 20% to >60% (Palik et al. Forestry without herbicides: the Quebec experience. 2000. Personal observations on the general biology of Black Ash and on the species’ abundance and distribution in Ontario and the Maritimes provinces. October 16, 2006. pp. Uhlig, P., pers. 189 pp. 1-33. The Canadian Field-Naturalist. Trial and Devine (1994) found that 69.4% of regeneration in Maine was through sprouting and only 13.5% from seed. Fauske, G., J. Knott, D. Nelson, and M. Kangas. COSEWIC Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge Subcommittee Representative to the Vascular Plants Subcommittee and Ph.D. in the study of flooding impacts on the Aboriginal community of Lake St. Martin. In: Proceedings of the Midwest Emerald Ash Borer Symposium, Novi MI. Ecosystem Management Ecologist, Newfoundland Department of Fisheries & Land Resources, Corner Brook, NL. 1999 to 2017). 2007. Censuses of Canada 1665 to 1871: The 1800s (1806 to 1871). In: Mastro, V., Reardon, R. Barnes. This plant has no children Legal Status. 2014 Emerald Ash Borer National Research and Technology Development Meeting. The isolation of Newfoundland occurrences may be significant in protecting them from Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis) invasion. (2000) report a decline of Black Ash over a large area of Algoma District, Ontario between 1857 and 1995, with the cause speculated to be forestry impacts, though their sample size was too small to assess statistical significance. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service. Honkala (technical coordinators). Journal of Biogeography 18: 7-12. How fast will trees die? Bill No. This report was overseen and edited by Roger Gallant, COSEWIC Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge Subcommittee Co-chair, with support from Jana Vamosi and Del Meidinger, Co-chairs of the COSEWIC Vascular Plants Subcommittee. Classification of Threats adopted from IUCN-CMP, Salafsky et al. [Accessed March 2018], Mi’kmaq Confederacy of Prince Edward Island. Curran. Entomol. American Forests. Kaur, R., C. Knott, and M.C. Black Ash has a significant ecological, ethnobotanical and cultural importance. Manitoba Department of Sustainable Development. 2015. Nair, V.M.G., C.J. 1987; Wright and Rauscher 1990). Kashian et al. comm. comm. (1987) report diameter at breast height of 25 cm at 110 years and 30 cm at 130 years in organic peat and muck, where high water tables and frequent flooding disturbance limit growth potential (Wright and Rauscher 1990; Benedict and Frelich 2008). 2016. 48:561-596. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service. [accessed February 2017]. Young trees above about 7 cm diameter develop bark with rounded, soft, corky ridges that are easily depressed or rubbed off. 2013; Klooster et al. 2018. Plant Pathology. Hydrochory and water induced germination enhance invasion of Fraxinus pennsylvanica. The State of Canada’s Forests: Annual Report 2014 (PDF). Emerald ash borer dispersal – a release and recapture study. The Mi'kmaq in CEPI (2006) attribute the decline of Black Ash around the Bras d'Or Lakes in Cape Breton, Nova Scotia to climate change because it alters germination conditions. Black Ash is still considered a common species in Ontario, Quebec and New Brunswick so detailed occurrence information has generally not been recorded during botanical fieldwork in those provinces and there had been no systematic effort to compile available occurrence data prior to this report. Davies (Jr.). Smith, H.H. 2006. Journal of Vegetation Science. 5 pp. Ophiostoma novo-ulmi sp. 10 pp. COSEWIC status reports are working documents used in assigning the status of wildlife species suspected of being at risk. 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